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Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God".[11] Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one's inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits".[12] Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid BastamiJalaluddin RumiHaji Bektash VeliJunaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, define Sufism as purely based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of Muhammad.[13][14][15][16] Some Orientalists, however, have proposed a variety of diverse theories pertaining to the nature of Sufism, such as Sufism being influenced byNeoplatonism or as an Aryan historical reaction against Semite cultural influence.[16] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, states that the preceding theories are false according to the point of view of Sufism.[16] According to William Chittick, "In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization and intensification of Islamic faith and practice."[17]

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